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March 17, 2023

GPTs are GPTs: An early look at the labor market impact potential of large language models

GPTs Are GPTs: An Early Look At The Labor Market Impact Potential Of Large Language Models


We investigate the potential implications of Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) models and related technologies on the U.S. labor market. Using a new rubric, we assess occupations based on their correspondence with GPT capabilities, incorporating both human expertise and classifications from GPT-4. Our findings indicate that approximately 80% of the U.S. workforce could have at least 10% of their work tasks affected by the introduction of GPTs, while around 19% of workers may see at least 50% of their tasks impacted. The influence spans all wage levels, with higher-income jobs potentially facing greater exposure. Notably, the impact is not limited to industries with higher recent productivity growth. We conclude that Generative Pre-trained Transformers exhibit characteristics of general-purpose technologies (GPTs), suggesting that as these models could have notable economic, social, and policy implications.

Report authors

Tyna Eloundou (OpenAI), Sam Manning (OpenAI, OpenResearch), Pamela Mishkin (OpenAI), Daniel Rock (University of Pennsylvania)