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GPT-4 contributions

Pretraining

Core contributors
Christopher Berner Supercomputing lead
Greg Brockman Infrastructure lead
Trevor Cai Throughput lead
David Farhi 
Manager of optimization team
Chris Hesse
Infrastructure usability co-lead
Shantanu Jain Infrastructure usability co-lead
Kyle Kosic Uptime and stability lead
Jakub Pachocki Overall lead, optimization lead
Alex Paino 
Architecture & data vice lead
Mikhail Pavlov 
Software correctness lead
Michael Petrov 
Hardware correctness lead
Nick Ryder Architecture & data lead
Szymon Sidor
Optimization vice lead
Nikolas Tezak
Execution lead
Phil Tillet
Triton lead
Amin Tootoonchian Model distribution, systems & networking lead
Qiming Yuan
Dataset sourcing and processing lead
Wojciech Zaremba 
Manager of dataset team

Compute cluster scaling
Christopher Berner, Oleg Boiko, Andrew Cann, Ben Chess, Christian Gibson, Mateusz Litwin, Emy Parparita, Henri Roussez, Eric Sigler, Akila Welihinda

Data
Sandhini Agarwal, Suchir Balaji, Mo Bavarian, Che Chang, Sheila Dunning, Leo Gao, Jonathan Gordon, Peter Hoeschele, Shawn Jain, Shantanu Jain, Roger Jiang, Heewoo Jun, Łukasz Kaiser, Nitish Shirish Keskar, Jong Wook Kim, Aris Konstantinidis, Chak Li, Todor Markov, Bianca Martin, David Mély, Oleg Murk, Hyeonwoo Noh, Long Ouyang, Alex Paino, Vitchyr Pong, Alec Radford, Nick Ryder, John Schulman, Daniel Selsam, Ian Sohl, Chelsea Voss, Lilian Weng, Clemens Winter, Tao Xu, Qiming Yuan, Wojciech Zaremba

Distributed training infrastructure
Greg Brockman, Trevor Cai, Chris Hesse, Shantanu Jain, Yongjik Kim, Kyle Kosic, Mateusz Litwin, Jakub Pachocki, Mikhail Pavlov, Szymon Sidor, Nikolas Tezak, Madeleine Thompson, Amin Tootoonchian, Qiming Yuan

Hardware correctness
Greg Brockman, Shantanu Jain, Kyle Kosic, Michael Petrov, Nikolas Tezak, Amin Tootoonchian, Chelsea Voss, Qiming Yuan

Optimization & architecture
Igor Babuschkin, Mo Bavarian, Adrien Ecoffet, David Farhi, Jesse Han, Ingmar Kanitscheider, Daniel Levy, Jakub Pachocki, Alex Paino, Mikhail Pavlov, Nick Ryder, Szymon Sidor, Jie Tang, Jerry Tworek, Tao Xu

Training run babysitting
Suchir Balaji, Mo Bavarian, Greg Brockman, Trevor Cai, Chris Hesse, Shantanu Jain, Roger Jiang, Yongjik Kim, Kyle Kosic, Mateusz Litwin, Jakub Pachocki, Alex Paino, Mikhail Pavlov, Michael Petrov, Nick Ryder, Szymon Sidor, Nikolas Tezak, Madeleine Thompson, Phil Tillet, Amin Tootoonchian, Chelsea Voss, Ben Wang, Tao Xu, Qiming Yuan

Long context

Core contributors
Gabriel Goh Long context co-lead
Łukasz Kaiser Long context lead
Ben Wang Attention architecture lead
Clemens Winter Long context co-lead

Long context research
Mo Bavarian, Gabriel Goh, Heewoo Jun, Łukasz Kaiser, Chak Li, Ben Wang, Clemens Winter

Long context kernels
Phil Tillet

Vision

Core contributors
Trevor Cai
Execution lead
Mark Chen
Vision team co-lead, Deployment lead
Casey Chu
Initial prototype lead
Chris Hesse
Data load balancing & developer tooling lead
Shengli Hu
Vision Safety Evaluations lead
Yongjik Kim
GPU performance lead
Jamie Kiros Overall vision co-lead, deployment research & evaluation lead
Daniel Levy Overall vision co-lead, optimization lead
Christine McLeavey
Vision team lead
David Mély
Data lead
Hyeonwoo Noh
Overall vision co-lead, research lead
Mikhail Pavlov
Scaling engineering lead
Raul Puri
Overall vision co-lead, engineering lead
Amin Tootoonchian
Model distribution, systems & networking lead

Architecture research
Casey Chu, Jamie Kiros, Christine McLeavey, Hyeonwoo Noh, Raul Puri, Alec Radford, Aditya Ramesh

Compute cluster scaling
Andrew Cann, Rory Carmichael, Christian Gibson, Henri Roussez, Akila Welihinda

Distributed training infrastructure
Trevor Cai, Yunxing Dai, Chris Hesse, Brandon Houghton, Yongjik Kim, Łukasz Kondraciuk, Hyeonwoo Noh, Mikhail Pavlov, Raul Puri, Nikolas Tezak, Amin Tootoonchian, Tianhao Zheng

Hardware correctness
Oleg Boiko, Trevor Cai, Michael Petrov, Alethea Power

Data
Jong Wook Kim, David Mély, Reiichiro Nakano, Hyeonwoo Noh, Long Ouyang, Raul Puri, Pranav Shyam, Tao Xu

Alignment Data
Long Ouyang

Training run babysitting
Trevor Cai, Kyle Kosic, Daniel Levy, David Mély, Reiichiro Nakano, Hyeonwoo Noh, Mikhail Pavlov, Raul Puri, Amin Tootoonchian

Deployment & post-training
Ilge Akkaya, Mark Chen, Jamie Kiros, Rachel Lim, Reiichiro Nakano, Raul Puri, Jiayi Weng

RL & alignment

Core contributors
Greg Brockman
Core infrastructure author
Arka Dhar Human data product manager
Liam Fedus
Data flywheel lead
Tarun Gogineni
Model creativity
Rapha Gontijo-Lopes
Synthetic data
Joshua Gross
Data collection engineering co-lead
Johannes Heidecke Refusals & model safety co-lead
Joost Huizinga
Initial fine-tuning derisking
Teddy Lee
Human data product manager
Jan Leike
Alignment co-lead
Ryan Lowe
Alignment co-lead
Luke Metz
Infrastructure lead, ChatML format lead
Long Ouyang
IF data collection lead
John Schulman
Overall lead
Jerry Tworek
Code lead
Carroll Wainwright
IF data infrastructure lead
Jonathan Ward
Data collection engineering co-lead
Jiayi Weng
RL Infrastructure author
Sarah Yoo
Human data operations manager
Wojciech Zaremba 
Human data lead
Chong Zhang
Refusals & model safety co-lead
Shengjia Zhao
Reward model lead
Barret Zoph
Overall training lead

Dataset contributions
Diogo Almeida, Mo Bavarian, Juan Felipe Cerón Uribe, Tyna Eloundou, Liam Fedus, Tarun Gogineni, Rapha Gontijo-Lopes, Jonathan Gordon, Joost Huizinga, Shawn Jain, Roger Jiang, Łukasz Kaiser, Christina Kim, Jan Leike, Chak Li, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Jacob Menick, Luke Metz, Pamela Mishkin, Tong Mu, Oleg Murk, Ashvin Nair, Long Ouyang, Alex Passos, Michael (Rai) Pokorny, Vitchyr Pong, Shibani Santurkar, Daniel Selsam, Sarah Shoker,, Carroll Wainwright, Matt Wiethoff, Jeff Wu, Kai Xiao, Kevin Yu, Marvin Zhang, Chong Zhang, William Zhuk, Barret Zoph

Data infrastructure
Irwan Bello, Lenny Bogdonoff, Juan Felipe Cerón Uribe, Joshua Gross, Shawn Jain, Haozhun Jin, Christina Kim, Aris Konstantinidis, Teddy Lee, David Medina, Jacob Menick, Luke Metz, Ashvin Nair,Long Ouyang, Michael (Rai) Pokorny, Vitchyr Pong, John Schulman, Jonathan Ward, Jiayi Weng, Matt Wiethoff, Sarah Yoo, Kevin Yu, Wojciech Zaremba, William Zhuk, Barret Zoph

ChatML format
Ilge Akkaya, Christina Kim, Chak Li, Rachel Lim, Jacob Menick, Luke Metz, Andrey Mishchenko, Vitchyr Pong, John Schulman, Carroll Wainwright, Barret Zoph

Model safety
Josh Achiam, Steven Adler, Juan Felipe Cerón Uribe, Hyung Won Chung, Tyna Eloundou, Rapha Gontijo-Lopes, Shixiang Shane Gu, Johannes Heidecke, Joost Huizinga, Teddy Lee, Jan Leike, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Todor Markov, Luke Metz, Tong Mu, Shibani Santurkar, John Schulman, Andrea Vallone, Carroll Wainwright, Jason Wei, Lilian Weng, Kai Xiao, Chong Zhang, Marvin Zhang, Barret Zoph

Refusals
Juan Felipe Cerón Uribe, Tyna Eloundou, Johannes Heidecke, Joost Huizinga, Jan Leike, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Pamela Mishkin, Tong Mu, Carroll Wainwright, Lilian Weng, Kai Xiao, Chong Zhang, Barret Zoph

Foundational RLHF and InstructGPT work
Diogo Almeida, Joost Huizinga, Roger Jiang, Jan Leike, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Pamela Mishkin, Dan Mossing, Long Ouyang, Katarina Slama, Carroll Wainwright, Jeff Wu, Kai Xiao, Marvin Zhang

Flagship training runs
Greg Brockman, Liam Fedus, Johannes Heidecke, Joost Huizinga, Roger Jiang, Kyle Kosic, Luke Metz, Ashvin Nair, Jiayi Weng, Chong Zhang, Shengjia Zhao, Barret Zoph

Code capability
Ilge Akkaya, Mo Bavarian, Jonathan Gordon, Shawn Jain, Haozhun Jin, Teddy Lee, Chak Li, Oleg Murk, Ashvin Nair, Vitchyr Pong, Benjamin Sokolowsky, Jerry Tworek, Matt Wiethoff, Sarah Yoo, Kevin Yu, Wojciech Zaremba, William Zhuk

Evaluation & analysis

Core contributors
Sandhini Agarwal System Card co-lead
Lama Ahmad
Expert red teaming & adversarial testing program lead
Mo Bavarian
Capability prediction co-lead
Tyna Eloundou
Safety evaluations co-lead
Andrew Kondrich
OpenAI Evals open-sourcing co-lead
Gretchen Krueger
System Card co-lead
Michael Lampe
Privacy and PII evaluations lead
Pamela Mishkin
Economic impact & overreliance evaluations lead
Benjamin Sokolowsky
Capability prediction co-lead
Jack Rae
Research benchmark execution lead
Chelsea Voss
Eval execution lead
Alvin Wang
OpenAI Evals lead
Kai Xiao
Safety evaluations co-lead
Marvin Zhang
OpenAI Evals open-sourcing co-lead

OpenAI Evals library
Shixiang Shane Gu, Angela Jiang, Logan Kilpatrick, Andrew Kondrich, Pamela Mishkin, Jakub Pachocki, Ted Sanders, Jessica Shieh, Alvin Wang, Marvin Zhang

Model-graded evaluation infrastructure
Liam Fedus, Rapha Gontijo-Lopes, Shixiang Shane Gu, Andrew Kondrich, Michael (Rai) Pokorny, Wojciech Zaremba, Chong Zhang, Marvin Zhang, Shengjia Zhao, Barret Zoph

Acceleration forecasting
Alan Hickey, Daniel Kokotajlo, Cullen O’Keefe, Sarah Shoker

ChatGPT evaluations
Juan Felipe Cerón Uribe, Hyung Won Chung, Rapha Gontijo-Lopes, Liam Fedus, Luke Metz, Michael Rai Pokorny, Jason Wei, Shengjia Zhao, Barret Zoph

Capability evaluations
Sully Chen, Tyna Eloundou, Shengli Hu, Roger Jiang, Jamie Kiros, Teddy Lee, Scott Mayer McKinney, Jakub Pachocki, Alex Paino, Giambattista Parascandolo, Boris Power, Raul Puri, Jack Rae, Nick Ryder, Ted Sanders, Szymon Sidor, Benjamin Sokolowsky, Chelsea Voss, Alvin Wang, Rowan Zellers, Juntang Zhuang

Coding evaluations
Ilge Akkaya, Mo Bavarian, Jonathan Gordon, Shawn Jain, Chak Li, Oleg Murk, Vitchyr Pong, Benjamin Sokolowsky, Jerry Tworek, Kevin Yu, Wojciech Zaremba

Real-world use case evaluations
Andrew Kondrich, Joe Palermo, Boris Power, Ted Sanders

Contamination investigations
Adrien Ecoffet, Roger Jiang, Ingmar Kanitscheider, Scott Mayer McKinney, Alex Paino, Giambattista Parascandolo, Jack Rae, Qiming Yuan

Instruction following and API evals
Diogo Almeida, Carroll Wainwright, Marvin Zhang

Novel capability discovery
Filipe de Avila Belbute Peres, Kevin Button, Fotis Chantzis, Mike Heaton, Wade Hickey, Xin Hu, Andrew Kondrich, Matt Knight, Andrew Mayne, Jake McNeil, Vinnie Monaco, Joe Palermo, Joel Parish, Boris Power, Bob Rotsted, Ted Sanders

Vision evaluations
Shixiang Shane Gu, Shengli Hu, Jamie Kiros, Hyeonwoo Noh, Raul Puri, Rowan Zellers

Economic impact evaluation
Tyna Eloundou, Sam Manning, Aalok Mehta, Pamela Mishkin

Non-proliferation, international humanitarian law & national security red teaming
Sarah Shoker

Overreliance analysis
Miles Brundage, Michael Lampe, Pamela Mishkin

Privacy and PII evaluations
Michael Lampe, Vinnie Monaco, Ashley Pantuliano

Safety and policy evaluations
Josh Achiam, Sandhini Agarwal, Lama Ahmad, Jeff Belgum, Tyna Eloundou, Johannes Heidecke, Shengli Hu, Joost Huizinga, Jamie Kiros, Gretchen Krueger, Michael Lampe, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Todor Markov, Vinnie Monaco, Tong Mu, Raul Puri, Girish Sastry, Andrea Vallone, Carroll Wainwright, CJ Weinmann, Lilian Weng, Kai Xiao, Chong Zhang

OpenAI adversarial testers
Josh Achiam, Steven Adler, Lama Ahmad, Shyamal Anadkat, Red Avila, Gabriel Bernadett-Shapiro, Anna-Luisa Brakman, Tim Brooks, Miles Brundage, Chelsea Carlson, Derek Chen, Hyung Won Chung, Jeremiah Currier, Daniel Kokotajlo, David Dohan, Adrien Ecoffet, Juston Forte, Vik Goel, Ryan Greene, Johannes Heidecke, Alan Hickey, Shengli Hu, Joost Huizinga, Janko, Tomer Kaftan, Ali Kamali, Nitish Shirish Keskar, Tabarak Khan, Hendrik Kirchner, Daniel Kokotajlo, Gretchen Krueger, Michael Lampe, Teddy Lee, Molly Lin, Ryan Lowe, Todor Markov, Jake McNeil, Pamela Mishkin, Vinnie Monaco, Daniel Mossing, Tong Mu, Oleg Murk, Cullen O’Keefe, Joe Palermo, Giambattista Parascandolo, Joel Parish, Boris Power, Alethea Power, Cameron Raymond, Francis Real, Bob Rotsted, Mario Salterelli, Sam Wolrich, Ted Sanders, Girish Sasty, Sarah Shoker, Shyamal Anadkat, Yang Song, Natalie Staudacher, Madeleine Thompson, Elizabeth Tseng, Chelsea Voss, Jason Wei, Chong Zhang

System card & broader impacts analysis
Steven Adler, Sandhini Agarwal, Lama Ahmad, Janko Altenschmidt, Jeff Belgum, Gabriel Bernadett-Shapiro, Miles Brundage, Derek Chen, Tyna Eloundou, Liam Fedus, Leo Gao, Vik Goel, Johannes Heidecke, Alan Hickey, Shengli Hu, Joost Huizinga, Daniel Kokotajlo, Gretchen Krueger, Michael Lampe, Jade Leung, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Kim Malfacini, Todor Markov, Bianca Martin, Aalok Mehta, Pamela Mishkin, Tong Mu, Richard Ngo, Cullen O’Keefe, Joel Parish, Rai Pokorny, Bob Rotsted, Girish Sastry, Sarah Shoker, Andrea Vallone, Carroll Wainwright, CJ Weinmann, Lilian Weng, Dave Willner, Kai Xiao, Chong Zhang

Deployment

Core contributors
Steven Adler
Early stage program management lead
Sandhini Agarwal
Launch safety lead
Derek Chen
Monitoring & response lead
Atty Eleti
GPT-4 API co-lead
Joanne Jang
GPT-4 product co-lead
Angela Jiang
GPT-4 product co-lead
Tomer Kaftan
Inference infrastructure & deployment lead
Rachel Lim
GPT-4 API co-lead
Kim Malfacini
Usage policy lead
Bianca Martin
Release program management lead
Evan Morikawa
Engineering lead
Henrique Ponde de Oliveira Pinto
Inference workflow lead
Heather Schmidt
GPT-4 infrastructure management
Maddie Simens
Design lead
Felipe Petroski Such Inference optimization & reliability lead
Andrea Vallone
Detection & refusals policy lead
Lilian Weng
Applied research lead
Dave Willner
Trust & safety lead
Michael Wu
Inference research lead

Inference research
Paul Baltescu, Scott Gray, Yuchen He, Arvind Neelakantan, Michael Wu

GPT-4 API & ChatML deployment
Greg Brockman, Brooke Chan, Chester Cho, Atty Eleti, Rachel Lim, Andrew Peng, Michelle Pokrass, Sherwin Wu

GPT-4 web experience
Valerie Balcom, Lenny Bogdonoff, Jason Chen, Dave Cummings, Noah Deutsch, Mike Heaton, Paul McMillan, Rajeev Nayak, Joel Parish, Adam Perelman, Eric Sigler, Nick Turley, Arun Vijayvergiya, Chelsea Voss

Inference infrastructure
Brooke Chan, Scott Gray, Chris Hallacy, Kenny Hsu, Tomer Kaftan, Rachel Lim, Henrique Ponde de Oliveira Pinto, Raul Puri, Heather Schmidt, Felipe Petroski Such

Reliability engineering
Haiming Bao, Madelaine Boyd, Ben Chess, Damien Deville, Yufei Guo, Vishal Kuo, Ikai Lan, Michelle Pokrass, Carl Ross, David Schnurr, Jordan Sitkin, Felipe Petroski Such

Trust & safety engineering
Jeff Belgum, Madelaine Boyd, Vik Goel

Trust & safety monitoring and response
Janko Altenschmidt, Anna-Luisa Brakman, Derek Chen, Florencia Leoni Aleman, Molly Lin, Cameron Raymond, CJ Weinmann, Dave Willner, Samuel Wolrich

Trust & safety policy
Rosie Campbell, Kim Malfacini, Andrea Vallone, Dave Willner

Deployment compute
Peter Hoeschele, Evan Morikawa

Product management
Jeff Harris, Joanne Jang, Angela Jiang

Additional contributions

Sam Altman, Katie Mayer, Bob McGrew, Mira Murati, Ilya Sutskever, Peter Welinder

Blog post & paper content
Sandhini Agarwal, Greg Brockman, Miles Brundage, Adrien Ecoffet, Tyna Eloundou, David Farhi, Johannes Heidecke, Shengli Hu, Joost Huizinga, Roger Jiang, Gretchen Krueger, Jan Leike, Daniel Levy, Stephanie Lin, Ryan Lowe, Tong Mu, Hyeonwoo Noh, Jakub Pachocki, Jack Rae, Kendra Rimbach, Shibani Santurkar, Szymon Sidor, Benjamin Sokolowsky, Jie Tang, Chelsea Voss, Kai Xiao, Rowan Zellers, Chong Zhang, Marvin Zhang

Communications
Ruby Chen, Cory Decareaux, Thomas Degry, Steve Dowling, Niko Felix, Elie Georges, Anna Makanju, Andrew Mayne, Aalok Mehta, Elizabeth Proehl, Kendra Rimbach, Natalie Summers, Justin Jay Wang, Hannah Wong

Compute allocation support
Theresa Lopez, Elizabeth Tseng

Contracting, revenue, pricing & finance support
Brooke Chan, Denny Jin, Billie Jonn, Patricia Lue, Kyla Sheppard, Lauren Workman

Launch partners & product operations
Filipe de Avila Belbute Peres, Brittany Carey, Simón Posada Fishman, Isabella Fulford, Teddy Lee, Yaniv Markovski, Tolly Powell, Toki Sherbakov, Jessica Shieh, Natalie Staudacher, Preston Tuggle

Legal
Jake Berdine, Che Chang, Sheila Dunning, Ashley Pantuliano

Security & privacy engineering
Kevin Button, Fotis Chantzis, Wade Hickey, Xin Hu, Shino Jomoto, Matt Knight, Jake McNeil, Vinnie Monaco, Joel Parish, Bob Rotsted

System administration & on-call support
Morgan Grafstein, Francis Real, Mario Saltarelli

Authorship & credit attribution
David Farhi

We also acknowledge and thank every OpenAI team member not explicitly mentioned above, including the amazing people on the executive assistant, finance, go to market, human resources, legal, operations and recruiting teams. From hiring everyone in the company, to making sure we have an amazing office space, to building the administrative, HR, legal, and financial structures that allow us to do our best work, everyone at OpenAI has contributed to GPT-4.

We thank Microsoft for their partnership, especially Microsoft Azure for supporting model training with infrastructure design and management, and the Microsoft Bing team and Microsoft’s safety teams for their partnership on safe deployment.

We are grateful to our expert adversarial testers and red teamers who helped test our models at early stages of development and informed our risk assessments as well as the system card. Participation in this red teaming process is not an endorsement of the deployment plans of OpenAI or OpenAI’s policies: Steven Basart, Sophie Duba, Cèsar Ferri, Heather Frase, Gavin Hartnett, Jake J. Hecla, Dan Hendrycks, Jose Hernandez-Orallo, Alice Hunsberger, Rajiv W. Jain, Boru Gollo Jattani, Lauren Kahn, Dan Kaszeta, Sara Kingsley, Noam Kolt, Nathan Labenz, Eric Liddick, Andrew J. Lohn, Andrew MacPherson, Sam Manning, Mantas Mazeika, Anna Mills, Yael Moros, Jimin Mun, Aviv Ovadya, Roya Pakzad, Yifan Peng, Ciel Qi, Alex Rosenblatt, Paul Röttger, Maarten Sap, Wout Schellaert, George Shih, Muhammad Shoker, Melanie Subbiah, Bryan West, Andrew D. White, Anna Katariina Wisakanto, Akhila Yerukola, Lexin Zhou, Xuhui Zhou.

Contributors listed in alphabetized order.