We’re releasing the 774 million parameter GPT-2 language model after the release of our small 124M model in February, staged release of our medium 355M model in May, and subsequent research with partners and the AI community into the model’s potential for misuse and societal benefit. We’re also releasing an open-source legal agreement to make it easier for organizations to initiate model-sharing partnerships with each other, and are publishing a technical report about our experience in coordinating with the wider AI research community on publication norms.
Key things we’ve learned
1. Coordination is difficult, but possible. To date, there hasn’t been a public release of a 1558M parameter language model, though multiple organizations have developed the systems to train them, or have publicly discussed how to train larger models. For example, teams from both NLP developer Hugging Face and the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2) with the University of Washington have explicitly adopted similar staged release approaches to us. Since February, we’ve spoken with more than five groups who have replicated GPT-2.
2. Humans can be convinced by synthetic text. Research from our research partners Sarah Kreps and Miles McCain at Cornell published in Foreign Affairs says people find GPT-2 synthetic text samples almost as convincing (72% in one cohort judged the articles to be credible) as real articles from the New York Times (83%). Additionally, research from AI2/UW has shown that news written by a system called "GROVER" can be more plausible than human-written propaganda. These research results make us generally more cautious about releasing language models.
3. Detection isn’t simple. In practice, we expect detectors to need to detect a significant fraction of generations with very few false positives. Malicious actors may use a variety of sampling techniques (including rejection sampling) or fine-tune models to evade detection methods. A deployed system likely needs to be highly accurate (99.9%–99.99%) on a variety of generations. Our research suggests that current ML-based methods only achieve low to mid–90s accuracy, and that fine-tuning the language models decreases accuracy further. There are promising paths forward (see especially those advocated by the developers of "GROVER") but it's a genuinely difficult research problem. We believe that statistical detection of text needs to be supplemented with human judgment and metadata related to the text in order to effectively combat misuse of language models.
We’ve partnered with four leading research organizations to analyze both the newly-released 774M parameter GPT-2 model and the unreleased full-size GPT-2 model. We’ve included some preliminary results from them in our technical report, and their ongoing analysis will factor into the potential release of the 1558M model. We’ve also developed a non-commercial legal agreement to facilitate the sharing of models between organizations and are publishing it here to help others initiate such sharing schemes.
- Cornell University is studying human susceptibility to digital disinformation generated by language models.
- The Middlebury Institute of International Studies Center on Terrorism, Extremism, and Counterterrorism (CTEC) is exploring how GPT-2 could be misused by terrorists and extremists online.
- The University of Oregon is developing a series of “bias probes” to analyze bias within GPT-2.
- The University of Texas at Austin is studying the statistical detectability of GPT-2 outputs after fine-tuning the model on domain-specific datasets, as well as the extent of detection transfer across different language models.
Future release decisions
Research from these partners will factor into our future release decisions, as will observing how the 774M model is used, and discussing language models with researchers and policymakers to understand the considerations around larger models. As part of our staged release strategy, our current plan is to release the 1558M parameter model in a few months, but it's plausible that findings from a partner, or malicious usage of our 774M model, could change this.
We think that a combination of staged release and partnership-based model sharing is likely to be a key foundation of responsible publication in AI, particularly in the context of powerful generative models. The issues inherent to large models are going to grow, rather than diminish, over time. We hope that our work on GPT-2, discussed further in the technical report we're publishing, will help provide evidence the AI community can draw on when thinking about the publication challenges inherent to some parts of AI research.
Released small parameter (124M) GPT-2 model.
The Partnership on AI co-hosts a dinner with OpenAI to discuss publication norms, then publishes a blog summarizing the discussion.
Released medium parameter (355M) model.
Released dataset of outputs from large-scale models.
Released a detection baseline to help people understand how to detect outputs of models like GPT-2.
The original blog post is updated to reflect these changes.
Adam King launches "TalktoTransformer.com", giving people an interface to play with the newly released models.
Hugging Face releases a conversational AI demo based on GPT-2 models, discusses some of the ethical considerations in the release decision, and decides not to release the large GPT-2 model.
Researchers with the University of Washington and Allen Institute for AI Research reveal GROVER, a GPT-2–style language model; they do not release the large versions of the model, and conduct research into the detection of the outputs of such models.
OpenAI testifies in Congress about the implications of synthetic media, including a discussion of synthetic text.
DeepMind discusses GPT-2 and the importance of appropriate publication norms for generative models in their recent discussion of unsupervised learning.
OpenAI commences a research collaboration with the Partnership on AI for publication norms in AI research. We're trying to work with a diverse set of AI research organizations to come up with questions scientists may want to ask ahead of publication, and potential frameworks they can use to make publication decisions.
DeepTabNine develops a code autocompleter based on GPT-2.
Researchers with the Thoughtful Technology Project and the University of Cambridge published a working paper on “Reducing malicious use of synthetic media research: Considerations and potential release practices for machine learning”.
AI startup AI21 Labs releases HAIM, a neural text generator; they only release a 345M variant of the model, "equivalent in size to the publicly released versions of Grover and GPT-2."
NVIDIA Research trains 8.3 billion parameter GPT-2 model.
Released larger parameter (774M) model.